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Online Education > Past ACMT Conferences > 2014 Natural Toxins Academy
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This one-day conference focused on the evidence and experienced-based perspectives by experts in the field with respect to plant toxins, anti-venoms, and overall economic concerns associated with antidotal therapy.

Course Objectives:
  • Review the pathophysiology of plant-induced neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and multi-organ failure.
  • Address the toxicity of, and alternatives to, traditional insecticides.
  • Describe the mechanisms behind and clinical features of naturally-occurring hallucinogens.
  • Discuss the role of antivenom and specific antidotal therapy in the treatment of venom-associated thrombocytopenia, angioedema, and tissue damage.

The Retina: A Vulnerable, Sensitive, and Predictive Target of Toxicity
Donald A. Fox, PhD, University of Houston College of Optometry, Houston, TX

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Objectives:
1. Introduction to retinal anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, toxicology, and vulnerability
2. Environmental toxicants and toxins: Source & ADME
3. Environmental toxicants and toxins: Common signs and symptoms of visual system dysfunction
4. Four principles learned from retinal toxicology studies with examples

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The Bradykinin Bunch: Toxin-Induced Angioedema 
Spencer C. Greene, MD, MS, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

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1. Review the role of bradykinin in the pathophysiology of certain envenomations.
2. Describe the clinical features of envenomations in which bradykinin plays a prominent role.
3. Discuss standard and novel approaches to the management of venom-induced angioedema. 

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OPP... you don't know me: Novel Therapies for Cholinesterase Inhibitor Toxicity
Steven B. Bird, MD, FACMT, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA

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Objectives:

1. Review mechanisms of action of nerve agents and OP pesticides.
2. Review and discuss novel therapies agents these toxins.

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Psychoactive Plants 2014: Herbal Products and Extracts Used as Recreational Drugs
Earth and Fire Erowid, Erowid Center, Grass Valley, CA

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Objectives:

1. Provide an overview of new trends in recreational plant and plant product use.
2. Provide an overview of the complex nature of new mixed herbal and synthetic psychoactive products.
3. Discuss health and toxicology issues.

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From Bt to RNAi: Current and Emerging Uses of Insecticidal Toxins in Genetically Engineered Crops
Daniel A. Goldstein, MD, FACMT, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO

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Objectives:

1. Describe the application of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) derived insecticidal proteins in GM (genetically modified) crops. 
2. Understand classification and basic mechanisms underlying the action and specificity of pore-forming class toxins.
3. Describe the emerging uses of double-stranded RNA technology in GM crops, including uses for insect control.
4. Recognize the potential safety advantages of the natural toxins used for pest control in GM crops. 

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Liver Let Die: Hepatotoxicity from Herbal Remedies
Ram Subramanian, MD, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta GA

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Objectives:
1. Review various etiological agents of herbal hepatotoxicity.
2. Describe patterns and proposed mechanisms of hepatic injury.3. Review toxicity related to interactions between hers and medications.

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Coagulopathies in Rattlesnake Envenomations: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go From Here?
Shaun D. Carstairs, MD, Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA

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Objectives:

1. Discuss the possible mechanisms behind venom-induced thrombocytopenia (VIT).
2. Review defibrination syndrome.
3. Analyze the role of certain venom components in the development of snakebite-induced coagulopathy.
4. Review the recurrence phenomenon.

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